As fighting has resumed in many parts of Syria, the optimism felt by many in mid-September when a cease fire ended most of the violence, has vanished. With American and Russian diplomats locking heads over the bombardment of government troops and a UN convoy in Syria, it seems that a return to the negotiation table is unlikely in the foreseeable future. However, as US President Obama has recently reiterated, there will not be a military end to the conflict in Syria. Instead, diplomatic efforts need to result in a comprehensive cease fire, which will lay the foundations for peace negotiations and a new post-war order in Syria. Continue reading “Building Inclusive Peace in Syria – A Critical Appraisal of the Executive Framework for a Political Solution”
Professor Jan Burns Head of Eligibility for the International Federation for sport for para-athletes with an intellectual disabilities (www.INAS.org) reflects back on key moments from Rio
I often have an inclusion debate around the Olympics and Paralympic. Some of my very politically inclusionist friends tell me that to be fully inclusive the events should be run together. So let me put some flesh and bones around this debate and say why I don’t agree with this view. Continue reading “Paralympic inclusion – what is it?”
Professor Jan Burns Head of Eligibility for the International Federation for sport for para-athletes with an intellectual disabilities (www.INAS.org) reflects back on key moments from Rio
As I watched the Olympics come to an end, and the inspirational adverts for the Paralympics filled the ad gaps, newspaper columns were expressing concern about the serious financial shortfall putting the event into jeopardy. Continue reading “Back from the Brink – The Paralympic Funding Crisis”
Dr Mark Bennister, Reader in Politics at Canterbury Christ Church University (CCCU), met with Khalifeh Ad-Dayyet, Mayor of the Deir Alla region of Jordan on 15 September. Dr Bennister arranged for the Mayor to visit Parliament, aided by the CCCU Politics alumna Bronwen Edwards in the office of Barry Gardiner MP. The Mayor is travelling to the UK to raise awareness of sustainable development peace building initiatives he is leading in the Jordan Valley as part of EcoPeace (formerly Friends of the Earth Middle East). Continue reading “EcoPeace in Jordan on the agenda in Parliament”
Written evidence examining the implications and opportunities of leaving the EU for science and research by Dr. Amelia Hadfield, Director of the Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies (CEFEUS) within the Politics/IR team at Canterbury Christ Church University has been published by the House of Commons’ Science and Technology Committee. Continue reading “House of Commons Publishes Evidence by CEFEUS Director”
By Simon Bransden, PhD candidate in Politics and IR, CCCU
For the fifth successive year, CCCU’s Politics, in conjunction with the Centre International de Formation Européene (CIFE) organised a Summer School at which undergraduate and postgraduate students could develop their knowledge and understanding of federal studies, the European Union and institutional design in divided societies. Continue reading “5th Summer School on Federalism, Multinationalism and the Future of Europe”
The Politics and International Relations team at Canterbury Christ Church University (CCCU) are delighted to achieve, for the second consecutive year, 95% overall satisfaction in the 2016 National Student Survey.
This result places us in the top 15 nationwide for Politics (12th) and it builds on our achievement of a top 30 place in the latest Guardian League Table (27th), released in May. Continue reading “Politics & IR Top 15 for Overall Satisfaction in National Student Survey, 2016”
By Jack Young, Third Year Undergraduate, Politics and International Relations
At the NATO summit held in Warsaw during the 8th – 9th of July, it was expected that cyber security would be a widely addressed issue. Indeed, the summit highlighted the importance of ‘cyber’ as a domain, and how great the threat to security cyber issues pose, declaring it an independent domain: “NATO must defend itself as effectively as it does in the air, on land, and at sea.” The summit saw the approval of the ‘cyber defence pledge’, meaning allies will facilitate “…co-operation on cyber defence including through multinational projects, education, training, and exercises and information exchange”. Approval of the pledge means that allies will work together on a number of issues to improve the future of cyber security.
CCCU’s Politics and International Relations team was strongly represented at the 24th IPSA World Congress of Political Science held in Poznan, Poland, from 23-28 July, with participation from senior academic staff, early stage researchers, and Ph.D. candidates.
The International Political Science Association (IPSA) is the world forum for Political Scientists and over 3000 delegates gathered to discuss the theme of ‘Politics in a World of Inequality’; and here the work of CCCU academics, in the fields of Comparative Federalism and Politics and Ethnicity, made a significant contribution.
In the aftermath of the referendum, the UK seems to be suffering from individual and collective leadership failure, write Mark Bennister and Ben Worthy. The use of fear tactics instead of thought-through strategies and of quick fixes instead of long-term visions are some of the reasons behind this failure.
Long-serving leadership is in short supply in the UK. The longest-serving party leader is now Plaid Cymru’s Leanne Wood, followed closely by the Green Party’s Natalie Bennett (who will be stepping down) and the SNP’s Nicola Sturgeon. With this short supply, we also now have a succession of political leaders avoiding responsibility: Cameron, Osborne, Johnson, Farage, and Corbyn. Leaders were complacent, with exaggerated beliefs in their electoral powers, in their political capital and in the machines they thought they led. But what exactly is it they failed to do?
Academics from the Centre for European Studies (CEFEUS) at Canterbury Christ Church University have recently made several media appearances to discuss the fallout from last Thursday’s referendum on Britain’s membership of the European Union. Dr Benjamin Martill, CEFEUS Deputy Director, appeared on Lembit Opik’s BBC Radio Kent programme the day the result was announced, alongside personal finance advisor David Braithwaite and political blogger Mark Thompson. The panel discussed the impact of David Cameron’s resignation on the Conservative party and the potential leadership candidates, as well as the likely effect of the ‘leave’ decision on the markets and the regulatory environment. Dr Martill spoke on the generational divide between ‘leave’ and ‘remain’ supporters, but also emphasised the role of other factors in deciding individuals’ positions, including political ideology, social class, and regional identity.
By Dr Licia Cianetti, Lecturer in Politics and International Relations
Among the many articles and headlines I went through today to try and make peace with what just happened, one jumped out with particular strength: in explaining what went wrong with their prediction of a Remain victory, YouGov titled “Unexpected high turnout in Leave areas pushed the campaign to victory”. It has been noted already many times that yesterday’s referendum shows a picture of a country that is deeply divided along age, class and educational lines, with the “losers” of globalisation on one side and the “winners” on the other. While troubling, this is not very surprising for anyone who has been following British – or indeed European – politics in the past few years. And this is not what was caught my eye in the YouGov’s headline. Continue reading “Brexit and the pyrrhic victory of the ‘ordinary people’”
By Paul Anderson PhD Candidate in Politics and International Relations
In February of this year I wrote a post for this very blog asking the question: Would a vote to leave the EU constitute a threat to the future of the Union? The results are in, and well, as I very much predicted, England and Wales have voted to leave the EU; Scotland and Northern Ireland have voted to remain. The constitutional edifice of the UK is well and truly cracking.
By Dr Sarah Lieberman: Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations
Yesterday on the 23rd June 2016, the British public went to the polls to vote on whether or not the UK should remain a member of the European Union. In the second referendum the UK has seen on EU membership, Britain voted to leave by 52% to 48%.
Our interaction with Europe has not finished, it has just entered a new phase. Unfortunately a phase characterised by horrible racist sentiment, genuine lack of humanity and lack of political understanding. With politicians acting like that, it is no wonder the public are split pretty much 50/50 on what to do. Continue reading “Post referendum musings: the beginning of the end, or a whole shiny new start?”
By Dr Amelia Hadfield, Director of the Centre for European Studies, Canterbury Christ Church University
It’s a clear result. But a divided outcome. In the early hours of today, the sparring of the last four months, and the uncertainty of the campaigns finally came to an end, and the results are clear. Following months of campaigning, English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish citizens have voted that the UK, as an EU Member State, will leave the EU.
Dr Mark Bennister, Reader in Politics was invited to take part in a new partnership event for A level Government and Politics teachers at Parliament on 14 June. The professional development event was a collaboration between The Parliamentary Education Service and the Political Studies Association. Dr Bennister gave a presentation on prime ministerial power and took part in a panel discussion with Prof Tim Bale (Queen Mary) on political leadership in the UK. Teachers from across the UK attended the specialist seminar having had presentations from politicians in the morning.
By Lewis Bloodworth, Second Year Undergraduate, Politics and International Relations
Today, the United Kingdom will decide the fate of its membership to the European Union, and much of the political establishment or news media has been almost completely focused on that big issue. It is easy at times like this to lose sight of other important political developments such as the recent announcement by the shadow chancellor John McDonnell that he and his team would be taking a “closer” look at proposals for a Universal Basic Income (UBI). Such a policy measure is intended to offset increasing shifts to automation and precarious work. As a young university student soon to enter the job market this certainly is an issue of great interest to me. Continue reading “A universal basic income: a solution to a precarious future?”
Open call for proposals from artists to undertake a Residency programme with LADA in London and with Canterbury Christ Church University (CCCU) in Canterbury, Kent.
Introduction and context
We are seeking proposals from artists to undertake a two-stranded residency programme: (a) a two-week research-based strand in LADA’s Study Room in Hackney Wick, London, exploring Live Art practices and methodologies in relation to issues of class and cultural privilege; and (b) a four-week practice based strand with CCCU and Sidney Cooper Gallery (in Canterbury, Kent), during which the artist will work with local community groups to put aspects of the research undertaken with LADA into practice.
The Centre for European Studies (CEFEUS) at Canterbury Christ Church University has today released a briefing on the risks associated with British withdrawal from the European Union.
The report summarises the findings of a high-level workshop held at Canterbury Christ Church University on 20 May 2016, convened by the Centre and attended by representatives from different sectors of the local community, including commerce, education, policing, healthcare, transport and local government. Continue reading “Briefing on Kent and ‘Brexit’”
On 7 July, at the Institute for Government in London, Dr Alexandra Kelso (University of Southampton) and Dr Mark Bennister (Canterbury Christ Church University) will present the findings of their new research on the Liaison Committee and its role in guaranteeing prime ministerial accountability. While most public attention is focused on Prime Minister’s Questions (PMQ), Liaison Committee sessions with the PM have remained mostly under the radar. These sessions have operated since 2002, questioning three successive Prime Ministers. Kelso and Bennister’s research focuses on the process of significant institutional learning the Committee has undergone over the course of these sessions. The research is funded by the Nuffield Foundation and supported by Canterbury Christ Church University and the University of Southampton.
This year Politics and International Relations at Canterbury Christ Church University celebrated its tenth anniversary. This is ten years of achievement by our students – students who have gone on to have a remarkable impact in the world beyond university; ten years of hard work by the academic team; ten years of high quality research informing policy and wider society.
Dr Amelia Hadfield, Jean Monnet Chair in European Foreign Affairs, and Director of the Centre for European Studies here at Canterbury Christ Church University has just been named one of the top 40 female academic experts on the European Union, according to the UK Political Studies Association (PSA). Dr Hadfield represents Canterbury Christ Church University in the list of competent and reliable women experts on the EU, a PSA initiative led by the Women and Politics Specialist Group .
On 4 May the second Liaison Committee evidence session with the Prime Minister since the May 2015 general election focused solely on the EU Referendum.
The Liaison Committee is made up of all the Select Committee chairs and this was the second time the new Committee had questioned the David Cameron since the general election last May. Dr Mark Bennister is leading a research project, funded by the Nuffield Foundation investigating these sessions. You can find out more about the project here .
CEFEUS Director Dr Amelia Hadfield appeared on Lembit Opik’s radio show on BBC Radio Kent last Sunday (8th May) to discuss the results of the local elections and the current state-of-play in British politics. Dr Hadfield is a frequent contributor to Lembit’s programme and is regularly called upon to discuss current political issues in Britain and Europe. On Sunday’s programme she appeared alongside Liberal Democrat councillor James Willis and Deputy Leader of the Medway Labour Group, Teresa Murray. Asked specifically to comment on the course of the referendum debate, Dr Hadfield called for an honest discussion of the value of the EU, free from mistruths and inaccurate ‘facts’. Asked which was she would be voting, Dr Hadfield indicated she would be ‘voting with her heart’, and hoped the content of the debate would allow others to do the same. You can hear Dr Hadfield’s thoughts on the elections and the Labour party by following the link below. The programme begins at 0:06:00.
By Paul Anderson, PhD Candidate in Politics at Canterbury Christ Church University
On Thursday, 5 May 2016, the Scottish electorate went to the polls to elect the fifth Scottish government since the inception of devolution in 1999. The result – the third consecutive victory for the Scottish National Party (SNP), albeit as a minority government – is testament to the transformation of Scottish politics which has taken place in recent years. The SNP has, once again, replaced Scottish Labour as the party of Scotland, with the party’s raison d’être – independence for Scotland – remaining at the forefront of the political agenda.
This is a guest post by Dr Mark Bannister, Senior Lecturer in Politics, Canterbury Christ Church University
Hillary Clinton is in a unique position, having occupied four of the most important and symbolic public offices in American politics. This is not the end of course as she may yet hold a fifth role, that of President. As she enters the campaign ‘home straight’ analyses of her readiness for the highest office are plentiful. A critical skill for any political leader is the ability to communicate to a variety of audiences. Rhetoric and oratory represent the means by which a politician can persuade, navigate and often manipulate the relationship between the rulers and the ruled. In a new book on Democratic Orators from JFK to Barack Obama Aristotelian modes of ethos (appeal based on character), pathos (emotion) and logos (logic) are used to examine the rhetoric of Democratic Party politics since the 1960s. My contribution to the volume evaluates the oratory of Hillary Clinton, drawing on her prolific public speeches in her political career up to the launch of her second presidential bid.
This post is the first of series of posts by CEFEUS Jean Monnet Studentship Holder 2015-16, Francesco Violi on Britain’s European future.
Many pro-Europeans are of the opinion that European integration is a process of “ever closer union”, the end-point of which is the emergence of something approximating a federal European state. Since the UK has generally been the member-state most critical of the federalist ideal, it is worth asking whether a Brexit might hasten moves on the continent towards ‘ever closer union’. It is undeniable that UK was much keener than other EU members in preserving its own sovereignty and national identity: The country opted out of the borderless Schengen area and the common currency, as well as the recent treaty establishing a ‘fiscal compact’. This scepticism has been even more marked in the area of common defence and security, where Britain’s identity as an ‘off-shore’ nation and its relative preponderance in national defence spending relative to other member-states have undercut British support for a ‘European army’. It is not unlikely, therefore, that the separation of the UK from the EU could remove many stumbling blocks toward increased integration.
On the 5 May, Kent residents will be able to visit their nearest polling station to vote for the next Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC).
Meet the PCC Candidates will take place on Thursday 28 April at 6.30pm, in the Powell Lecture Theatre on the University’s North Holmes Campus.
Staff and students from the Centre for European Studies (CEFEUS) took part in an online seminar on Tuesday evening (19th April) to discuss the upcoming in/out referendum on Britain’s membership of the European Union (EU). The event was hosted by the University of Pittsburgh’s University Centre for International Studies and featured an expert panel of European politics scholars. Featuring alongside CEFEUS Director Dr Amelia Hadfield were Dr Tim Oliver (LSE), Professor Michelle Egan (American University), and Professor Alan Sked (LSE, and founder and former member of UKIP).
Dr Amelia Hadfield, Director of the Centre for European Studies at Canterbury Christ Church University, appeared on the BBC News Service last Thursday to discuss Jeremy Corbyn’s support for continued British membership of the EU. She discussed the matter with host Roberto Perrone, who asked about the significance, and credibility of Corbyn’s announcement that Labour MPs should vote to remain.
By Lewis Bloodworth
Second Year Undergraduate, Politics and International Relations
The UK’s place in the world is perhaps the most divisive issue in contemporary British politics. Critics from both sides of the political spectrum rail against the vivacity of European integration, the decline of British influence on the world stage, and the sublimation of law from the national to the international. Globalisation has heralded the diffusion of power and agency from the nation state to that of a multiplicity of interconnected actors, all operating within a broader transnational system that is fluid and dynamic. Such change being accompanied by fragmentation and a re-formation of society, its composition being in flux as traditional Fordist economies were reimagined into a Post-Fordist information society. Civilisation became one of ever greater shift, networked and culturally fluid. It is under these structural changes that citizens of every nation state find themselves ill at ease: The older generation, having borne witness to the rise of a structured and regulated society with security of work and guaranteed welfare are having to adjust to the imposition of a new world order of free markets, flexible employment, and suppressed wages.
By Dr David Bates, Director of Politics and International Relations
One cannot blame the son for the moral crimes of the father – but David Cameron is no ordinary son, and his father no ordinary father. For Cameron is the Prime Minister of a government so focused on its austerity agenda that a man so far to the right of the Conservative Party as Iain Duncan Smith (‘IDS’) claimed that the Budget of 16 March 2016 was a step too far! (We might of course speculate about the real reasons for IDS’s departure, though I would gamble that the Brexit debate has something to do with it.) Continue reading “Perhaps we were not “all in it together”, but David Cameron is really in it now!”
Listeners to Lembit Opik’s programme on Radio Kent heard a discussion on the consequences of ‘Brexit’ earlier this month as CEFEUS Director Dr Amelia Hadfield appeared on the show alongside Sir Roger Gale, Conservative MP for North Thanet and Henry Bolton, UKIP’s candidate for Kent Police and Crime Commissioner. Dr Hadfield discussed issues in the news – including fracking and global warming – before discussion turned to the thorny question of Britain’s relationship with Europe and the rest of the world.
By Liza Kummrow, PhD Candidate in Politics and IR at CCCU
Last Friday was a day full of different experiences that left me both angry and emotional. Angry because I could not believe how people could live in such appalling conditions in France when we visited the old part of the Dunkirk camp. Luckily, all the people that used to live there have now been relocated to a much better facilitated and spacious camp, where people live in actual small huts with an own house number, have access to proper bathroom facilities with showers, a small open-space house to charge their phones and get some essential goods etc. Although not all the 2500 refugees that are being accommodated there have access to electricity or heating it definitely feels like a big improvement to the conditions that people were living in when residing in the old part of the camp.
By Bill Jamieson, CEFEUS Visiting Lecturer
The states of America are no longer “united”. The country that pledged to be “one nation, indivisible” has become a polarized morass of contentious factions and competing interest groups.
Opposing sides have hardened into ideological opposites with seemingly disparate motives and goals. Rigid loyalty to a particular ideology (primarily on the political right) trumps the vision of the nation’s founders, a vision of a “more perfect union” formed to ensure the general welfare of the people.
By Dr André Barrinha, Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations
From all the debates surrounding the Brexit campaign, the ‘democratic deficit’ question seems to me to be among the most relevant (although certainly not the most discussed). It is undeniably true that much of the EU’s activity is conducted by unelected officials who are not directly accountable to any electorate. Also, it is fair to say that whereas the common citizen knows how to participate in the political life of his or her region or country, the same does not necessarily apply to the EU. Many have never voted in the European elections and most would not be able to tell the name of a single MEP.
Last Friday (26th February) the Politics and International Relations Programme and the Centre for European Studies (CEFEUS) hosted a student-organised debate on Britain’s relationship with Europe, an issue made all the more timely by the recent announcement by the prime minister of an in/out referendum this June. The event was part of a week of debates organised to mark the ten-year anniversary of the Department, which was established by Dr David Bates in 2006. The debate was organised by second-year undergraduate students as part of their Political Research module and saw key roles – introductory remarks, filming, research, chairing and timekeeping – performed by the students themselves. Dr Mark Bennister introduced the speakers and moderated the event.
By Luke Overton, 2nd year student of Politics and International Relations
Two people, a bell and some fiery attacks. At first glance this may appear to be an article about a boxing match but in actual fact this article is about Canterbury Christchurch’s Brexit debate. Like in a boxing match both sides of the debate focussed on their perceived strengths; economics and trade. Neither side extensively spoke about the controversial issue of immigration. Representing Leave.eu Marc Glendening from Policy Exchange think tank, and speaking in support of Britain stronger in Europe was James Flanagan, Liberal Democrat Parliamentary Spokesman for Canterbury and Whitstable. Local MP Julian Brazier also intervened in favour of the leave campaign. Continue reading “The Brexit debate: a student’s view”
The House of Lords’ European Union Committee has recently published its report, entitled Europe in the world: Towards a more effective EU foreign and security strategy. Among a wide range of expert contributions drawn across various UK and European universities and research centres, the Lords Security Strategy paper mentioned Dr Amelia Hadfield, Director of the Centre for European Studies (CEFEUS) and Canterbury Christ Church University.
By Dr Soeren Keil, Reader in Politics and International Relations
The United Kingdom and the European Union (EU), that is a story full of confusion, misunderstandings, mutual grievance and yet somehow also one of mutual need, love and support. To understand the complex relationship between the UK and the EU, it is important to assess what the EU is, what the UK thinks the EU is, what the EU thinks the UK’s role in the EU is and where both see their future. This analysis has become even more important in light of the announcement for a referendum of the 23rd of June 2016, when British voters will be asked if they believe the country should remain a Member State of the European Union. Continue reading “The Great British Delusion over Europe”
Canterbury Christ Church University is pleased to announce its 2016 round for PhD scholarships.
Scholarships include a stipend of £13,000 per year and tuition fee waiver for three years. The scholarship is available to British/ EU and non-EU students. Canterbury Christ Church University is able to sponsor Tier4 student visas for non-EU students, who are awarded the scholarship.
More information about the scholarship and the application are available here
The Politics and International Relations programme at Canterbury Christ Church University has a vibrant PhD community. Current PhD students work on a variety of topics, including the Occupy movement, political capital in Russia, minority nationalism in liberal states, the Eurozone after the financial crisis, EU enlargement policy and security changes in the Western Balkans, EU visa liberalisation and minority rights and crises and federal political systems.
We welcome applications in the specialist areas that our staff work in:
Dr Andre Barrinha: Security Studies, International Relations Theory, Turkish Foreign Policy, European Security
Dr David Bates: Contemporary Radical Politics, Marxism, Political Activism
Dr Mark Bennister: British Politics, Leadership Studies, Parliamentary Studies
Dr Laura Cashman: Minority Rights, Central and Eastern European Politics
Dr Amelia Hadfield: EU Foreign Policy, Energy Governance, Commonwealth Studies
Dr Soeren Keil: Western Balkan Politics, EU Enlargement, Power-sharing in Divided Societies, Federalism and Territorial Autonomy
Dr Sarah Lieberman: Environmental Politics, Space Policy, EU governance.
More information about the Politics and International Relations programme is available here
To discuss a potential topic, please send an initial email with the name of the potential supervisor to firstname.lastname@example.org
The deadline for application is 18 April 2016 with a start date of 1 October 2016.
We are looking forward to receiving your applications!
By Dr Mark Bennister
And so to watch Boris in action at City Hall. By chance I was there to see how questioning the Mayor works as part of a wider research project on prime ministerial accountability to the legislature. Of course this was the morning after the night before and it’s all about Boris and Europe. The Mayor’s Question Time was supposed to be about the budget, but Boris – and to be fair several assembly members – was determined to make it all about the EU.
Photo By Andrew Parsons/ i-Images
By Liza Kummrow, PhD Candidate in Politics and International Relations at Canterbury Christ Church University
In light of the current refugee crisis, Europe is struggling to cope with accommodating all the thousands of refugees who arrive at the European border everyday. The idea of a united European Union (EU) that shares common values such as human rights and the protection and integration of minorities has slowly begun to fall apart.
The speakers at the event were our very own Dr David Bates, Director of the Activism Research Network, and Kate Osamor, Labour MP for Edmonton.
The Director of the Centre for European Studies, Dr Amelia Hadfield, made an appearance on BBC Radio Kent over the weekend as part of a call-in discussion on Britain’s future in Europe.
Dr Hadfield conversed with Professor Tim Luckhurst, who was standing in for Lembit Opik, the programme’s regular host, and members of the public on Britain’s relationship with Europe and the current challenges facing the European Union. With the majority of callers were sceptical about Britain’s relationship with Europe, Dr Hadfield sought to balance the debate, pointing out that both Britain and Europe would be worse off should a Brexit occur.
By Paul Anderson, PhD Candidate in Politics at Canterbury Christ Church University
Discussions concerning the United Kingdom’s (UK) membership of the European Union (EU) are ongoing as David Cameron seeks to broker a deal on his renegotiation terms before a crucial summit in Brussels in just a few weeks. In spite of the prime minister’s optimism that an agreement can be swiftly reached, if the European Council’s president, Donald Tusk, is to be believed, much work remains to be done. Within the next 24 hours, intense negotiations will continue, and with over a fortnight to go before the Member State’s ‘get-together’, there is still time for negotiation. A successful outcome, that is, agreements on Cameron’s four prioritised areas – immigration, competitiveness, sovereignty and protection, would no doubt be the starting pistol for the European referendum campaigns; there is high speculation of a vote as soon as June this year. Polls on referendum voting intentions show that there is a division amongst the four nations of the United Kingdom (UK). In both Scotland and Northern Ireland there is a relatively strong majority of the electorate in favour of remaining. In Wales only a slight majority favour continued EU membership, whereas in England Euroscepticism pervades – a majority, albeit slim, support leaving the EU. These differentiated results therefore beg the question: Would a vote to leave the EU constitute a threat to the future of the Union?
Photo: Number 10